On this page:

Archives with Extensive Andrew Lang Holdings

The Lang Collection at the University of St Andrews

The Lilly Library, Indiana University. (See also the Roughhead MSS and this blog post on the collection)

Other Archives with Andrew Lang Holdings

The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

The British Library, London

The Brotherton Collection, University of Leeds

The Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin

Houghton Library, Harvard University Library

The National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh (Letters between Lang and William Blackwood III are preserved)

The Norfolk Record Society, Norwich (A ms of The World’s Desire is here, with scratches out and corrections, along with other Haggard letters and mss, including She.)

The Society for Psychical Research Papers, University of Cambridge, UK (Lang’s letters to Oliver Lodge are preserved)

University of Glasgow (Fewer than ten letters and a testimonial)

University of Edinburgh (Thirty-six letters, some Leonora Lang’s–See blog post).

University of London (The University of London contains 124 letters from Andrew Lang to Henry Austin Dobson [MS810], as well as one other letter from Lang to an unknown recipient [AL133]).

Related Archives and Finding Additional Archives

The records of the Longman Group are held at the University of Reading.

You may search for additional material in the Locations Register of English Literary Manuscripts and Letters (extremely useful), the National Archives (UK), Archives Hub (UK), or ArchiveGrid (Worldwide).

Please contact me if you know of an archive with Lang materials that is not listed here.

A List of the Andrew Lang Lectures at the University of St Andrews (begun 1927) is available here.

The 1927–1937 lectures are collected into a book, Concerning Andrew Lang and include

  • George Gordon’s “Andrew Lang,” 1 Dec. 1927.
  • Alexander Shewan’s “Andrew Lang’s Work for Homer,” 15 Nov. 1928.
  • R. R. Marett’s “The Raw Material of Religion,” 25 Oct. 1929.
  • Robert S. Rait’s “Andrew Lang as Historian,” 24 Oct. 1930.
  • Louis Cazamain’s “Andrew Lang and the Maid of France,” 22 Oct. 1931.
  • John Buchan’s “Andrew Lang and the Border,” 17 Oct. 1932.
  • H. J. C. Grierson’s “Lang, Lockhart, and Biography,” 6 Dec. 1933.
  • J. D. Mackie’s “Andrew Lang and the House of Stuart,” 21 Nov. 1934.
  • Bernard Darwin’s “Andrew Lang and the Literature of Sport,” 26 Nov. 1936.
  • A. Blyth Webster’s “Andrew Lang’s Poetry,” 20 Oct. 1937.

Other published Andrew Lang lectures include

Fergusson, Sir James. Shakespeare’s Scotland: Being the Andrew Lang Lecture Delivered Before the University of St. Andrew‘s, 14 Nov. 1956. Nelson, 1957.

Murray, Gilbert. “Andrew Lang the Poet.” London: Oxford UP, 1948. Available from Project Gutenberg.

Tolkien, J.R.R. On Fairy-stories. [1939.] Douglas Anderson and Verlyn Flieger have published not only the revised final version, but Tolkien’s drafts.

Critical Editions of Andrew Lang’s Writings:

Hubbard, Tom and Celeste Ray, eds. The Selected Writings of Andrew Lang. 3 vols. Routledge, 2016.

Teverson, Andrew. The Selected Children’s Fictions, Folk Tales, and Fairy Tales of Andrew Lang. Edinburgh UP, 2021.

Teverson, Andrew, Alexandra Warwick, and Leigh Wilson, eds. The Edinburgh Critical Edition of the Selected Writings of Andrew Lang. 2 vols. Edinburgh UP, 2014.

Biographies and Book-Length Writing with Andrew Lang as the Central Figure:

Cocq, Antonius P.L. de. Andrew Lang, A Nineteenth Century Anthropologist. Tilburg: Zwijsen, 1968.

Green, Roger Lancelyn. Andrew Lang: A Critical Biography. Leicester: Edmund Ward, 1946.

Langstaff, Eleanor De Selms. Andrew Lang. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978.

Editions of Lang’s Letters:

Demoor, Marysa, ed. Dear Stevenson: Letters from Andrew Lang to Robert Louis Stevenson with Five Letters from Stevenson to Lang. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1990.

—. Friends over the Ocean: Andrew Lang’s American Correspondents 1881–1912 [Letters to J. B. Matthews, H. H. Furness, F. J. Child, William James, and J. R. Lowell]. Gent: Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 1989.

[See also Demoor’s “Andrew Lang (1844–1912): Late Victorian Humanist and Journalistic Critic with a Descriptive Checklist of the Lang Letters.” Diss. Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 1982–83. The link to Demoor’s dissertation is from Ghent University library and is posted with her permission; unlike the Andrew Lang writings posted on this site, which are in the public domain, this dissertation is under copyright and should be treated accordingly.]

The St Andrews Digital Collections also contain scans of selected Lang letters, including letters to David Hay Fleming, Sir William Craigie, and Anna Hills (Mrs. Herbert Hills).


Courtney, W. L. “A Bibliographical Note on Andrew Lang.” English Illustrated Magazine. March 1894. [RLG 237; I have not confirmed this article’s contents.]

Falconer, C. M. “Specimens of a Bibliography.” Privately printed. 1889. (RLG 236)

Green, Roger Lancelyn. “Appendix C: Articles and Notes on Andrew Lang” [236–40], “A Short-Title Bibliography of the Works of Andrew Lang” [241–49], and “Addenda to Bibliography: A selection of Lang’s more important uncollected contributions to magazines” including “Series of Essays” [250], “Single Essays” [250–57], and “Uncollected Poems and Verses” [257–59]. Andrew Lang: A Critical Biography. Leicester: Edmund Ward, 1946.

Langstaff, B. Meredith. “Andrew Lang Articles: [A Bibliography Compiled by B. Meredith Langstaff.” [New York: B. Meredith Langstaff, 1956.] Available in the University of St Andrews Special Collections.

Contemporary or Near-Contemporary Accounts of Andrew Lang (including obituaries and commemorations):

If I found the reference first in Roger Lancelyn Green’s Andrew Lang: A Critical Biography but have not verified the contents, I note that fact with [RLG]. Some of the RLG entries have incomplete bibliographic information; I have not yet tracked the full citation.

Anderson, J. C. “St Andrews Library Bulletin.” 1912. [RLG 237.]

[Andrew Lang Obituary.] The Bookfellow [Sidney, Australia.] Sep. 1912. p. 241. [B. Meredith Langstaff list.]

Beerbohm, Max. Two Glimpses of Andrew Lang.” Life and Letters 1.1 (1928): 1–11.

Brown, P. Hume. “Andrew Lang.” Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 5. 1912. [RLG 237.]

Charnwood, Dorothea Mary Roby Benson, Baroness. Call Back Yesterday: A Book of Old Letters Chosen from her Collection, with Some Memories of her Own, etc. London: 1937. pp. 271–77. [RLG 1937.]

Chesterton, G. K. “Our Notebook [Andrew Lang].” The Illustrated London News, 27 July 1912. p. 130. [RLG 237] [The majority of this obituary is given at the bottom of this site’s Illustrated London News page.]

Christie, Ella, and Alice King Stewart. A Long Look at Life by Two Victorians. London: Seeley, Service & Co., [1940].

Clodd, Edward. “Andrew Lang.” Memories. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1916. 207–216.

—. “In Memoriam: Andrew Lang.” Folklore 23:3 (September 1912): 358–62.

College Echoes 25.1 [8.1 n.s.) (25 Oct. 1912): 1–20. With a poem by M. O. B., and articles by J.B.S. [J. B. Salmond] (“The Man of Letters, pp. 1–5), Professor Kay (“A Tribute,” pp. 5–6), Allan Menzies, (“Andrew Lang as Student,” pp. 6–7), a drawing [by Joseph Lee of Dundee] of Lang throwing gooseberries into the mouths of two boys (with a paragraph description ( “A Reminiscence in St Andrews,” p. 9) and many short articles and poems by Lang himself [many stating explicitly that they are reprints from previous College Echoes]; most have a heading, followed by Lang’s original title: “‘Dame Echoes’ First Sweetheart” (p. 8) [about the beginning of College Echoes], “St Andrews’ Andrew” (p. 8),  “Verses Grave and Gay: ‘An Old Song,’ ‘A String of Poets'” (p. 10),  “Lang at the Tee: ‘Monogolf: The Fijian Whaki-Whaki'” 11–13, “Lang the Historian: ‘George Wishart: Or the Wolf and the Lamb'” (13–17), “Lang as Boswell. ‘Dr. Johnson on the Links. (From an Auchinleck MS.'” (17–18), and “Lang the Occult Scientist. ‘A Discovery in Second Sight'” (18–19), and “Lang in the Library. ‘Our Old Bogey Books.'” 19–20.

Colvin, Sidney. Memories and Notes of Persons and Places, 1852–1912. London: Edward Arnold, 1921. 

Elwin, Malcolm. Old Gods Falling. London: Collins, 1939.

Falconer, C. M. “A New Friendship’s Garland.” Privately Printed. 1898. [RLG 237]

Foster, Jeanne Robert. “Andrew Lang & His Work.” American Review of Reviews (New York). September 1912, pp. 375–76. (From B. Meredith Langstaff’s list.)

Gosse, Edmund. “Andrew Lang.” Portraits and Sketches. London: William Heinemann, 1913. 197–211.

Gordon, George. “Andrew Lang.” Dictionary of National Biography article. [RLG 236]

—. “Andrew Lang: Being the Andrew Lang Lecture Delivered Before the University of St. Andrews, 1 December 1927.” London: Oxford University Press/Humphrey Milford, 1928.

Haggard, H. Rider. The Days of My Life. Ed. C. J. Longman. London: Longmans, Green, 1926. 2 vols. Vol. 1.  Vol. 2.  [The U Penn online books page also has links to full text of both volumes.]

Hutchinson, Horace. “Spencer Walpole and Andrew Lang.” Portraits of the ‘Eighties. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1920. pp. 208–17. [RLG 238, full text available in Gale’s Literature Resource Center Database.]

“In Memoriam: Andrew Lang. Blackwood’s Magazine 192 (Sep. 1912): 425–30. [RLG 237.]

Jerrold, Walter and R. M. Maynard, eds. A Century of Parody and Imitation. (London, New York, etc.: Humphrey Milford, Oxford UP, 1913). “The object of this compilation,” the editors proclaim, “is to provide a corpus of representative parodies and imitations of a century” (v). Five of Lang’s poems are included, which are imitations of D. G. Rossetti, Swinburne (2), Emerson, and William Morris.

Ker, W. P. Commemorative address on Andrew Lang, by W. P. Ker; and on Arthur Woollgar Verrall; by J. W. Mackail; award of the Edmond de Polignac Prize Thursday, November 28th, 1912. London: Henry Frowde, 1913. [RLG also lists J. M. Barrie next to Ker’s name (238), but, if I remember rightly, Barrie was not writing on Lang; please correct me if I’m wrong.]

Marett, R. R. “The Late Andrew Lang.” Athenaeum 4423 (Aug. 3, 1912): 119.

Maxwell, Sir Herbert. Evening Memories. 1932. pp. 216–19, etc. [RLG 238.]

Murray, Gilbert. Andrew Lang the Poet. London: Oxford UP, 1948.

Rait, R. S., Gilbert Murray, Solomon Reinach, and J. J. Millar. “Commemorative Articles.” The Quarterly Review. April 1913. [RLG 238.]

Ridge, W. Pett. “Mr. Andrew Lang.” The Bookman. Oct. 1900. pp. 12–15. British Periodicals. 

Saintsbury, George. “Andrew Lang in the Eighteen-Seventies.” The Eighteen-Seventies. 1929. [RLG 238.]

—. “Obituary. Andrew Lang.” The Oxford Magazine 31, no. 1 (October 17, 1912): 5–7.

Salmond, J. B., ed. Andrew Lang and St. Andrews: A Centenary Anthology. University of St. Andrews, 1944.

Sellar, E. M. “Recollections and Impressions.” 1907. [RLG 237]

Simson, J. “Andrew Lang a Gipsy.” [4-page pamphlet], 1892. [RLG 236].

Swinnerton, Frank. Background with a Chorus: A Footnote to Changes in English Literary Fashion between 1901 and 1917. New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1956. Note: Swinnerton’s book should be taken with an extremely large pinch of salt; he provides juicy anecdotes and rumor, but other than truncated subjective impressions paraphrased from others (all impressions of Lang that he chooses to report are negative), he has no evidence that his claims about Lang are true (whether they be about how many reviews of King Solomon’s Mines Lang is reported to have written—by unnamed sources—or about whether Lang’s histories were accurate).

Contemporary or Near Contemporary Accounts of Lang’s Work:

[This list could be endless, but I include those books and articles that have appeared in other lists, such as in Roger Lancelyn Green’s Andrew Lang: A Critical Biography, the MLA International Bibliography, as well as a few others that have been significant in my own research.]

Brown, R. “Semitic Influence on Hellenic Mythology, with Special Reference to the Works of Max Müller and Andrew Lang.” 1898. [RLG 237]

Canton, William. “Mr. Andrew Lang as a Poet.” The Bookman. Aug. 1895. [RLG 236]

Greenwood, G. G. “Is there a Shakespeare Problem? A Reply to J. M. Robertson and Andrew Lang.” 1916. [RLG 238.]

Quiller-Couch, A. T. “On Lang’s Prose Style.” Pall Mall Magazine. July 1897. [RLG 236.]

Runciman, James. “King Plagiarism and His Court.” Fortnightly Review 47.279 (Mar. 1890): 421–439. (This article is about Haggard’s Allen Quatermain crab plagiarism controversy, among other plagiarisms. Lang’s name is not mentioned, and Runciman did not wish to vex Lang [see the Athenaeum, Mar. 29, 1890, p. 404], but he was annoyed with Haggard.)

Saintsbury, George. “Andrew Lang’s Poetry.” The Quarterly Review. Oct. 1923. [RLG 238.]

Toy, Crawford H. “Creator Gods.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 23, 1902, pp. 29-37.

Walters, J. Cumming. “Andrew Lang and Dickens’s Puzzle.” The Dickensian. (Sep. 1912.) [RLG 237.]

Wanliss, T. D. “Scotland and Presbyterianism Vindicated. Being a Critical Review of the Third Volume of Mr. Lang’s History.” Edinburgh: William J. Hay, 1905. [Lang responded to this book in October 1905 in Blackwood’s. Wanliss published The Muckrake in Scottish History, or Mr. Lang Re-criticized in 1906 (William J. Hay).

Works on Lang from 1943–45 (1944 was the centenary of Lang’s birth):

[All of these are from the list in Roger Lancelyn Green’s critical biography.]

Bushnell, George H. “Andrew Lang at Fifty.” Scots Magazine. Mar. 1944. [RLG 240]

—. “Notes on Andrew Lang.” The Times Literary Supplement. 5 June 1943. [RLG 239]

Green, Roger Lancelyn.  “Andrew Lang and the Fairy-tale.” The Review of English Studies. July 1944. [RLG 240.]

—. “Andrew Lang at Oxford.” The Oxford Magazine. 15 June 1944. [RLG 240]

—. “Andrew Lang: Critic and Dickensian.” The Dickensian. Dec. 1944. [RLG 240]

—. “Andrew Lang: Poet and Romantic. English. July 1944. [RLG 240]

—. “‘Dear Andrew’ and ‘Dear Louis.'” Scots Magazine. Aug. 1945. [RLG 240]

—. “More Notes on Andrew Lang.” The Times Literary Supplement. 17 June 1943. [RLG 239]

Mackie, J. D. “Andrew Lang: the Man and the Writer.” The Listener. 13 Apr. 1944 [RLG 240]

Parker, W. M. “Lang and Longmans.” Scots Magazine. Mar. 1944. [RLG 240]

Salmond, J. B. “Introduction to Andrew Lang and St. Andrews: A Centenary Anthology.” 1944. [RLG 240]

Thompson, Sir Darcy. “Andrew and Pat.” The Scots Magazine. May 1944. [RLG 240]

Books, Journal Articles, and Book Chapters that discuss Andrew Lang:

Allen, Joseph Roe, III. “The Myth Studies of Wen I-To: A Question of Methodology.” Tamkang Review: A Quarterly of Comparative Studies between Chinese and Foreign Literatures, vol. 13, no. 2, 1982, pp. 137-160.

Andrew Lang at Selkirk.” More Books, Being the Bulletin of the Boston Public Library, vol. 23, 1948, pp. 309-310.

Bennett, Gillian. “The Rhetoric of Tradition.” Talking Folklore, vol. 1, no. 3, 1987, pp. 32-46.

Berman, Ruth. “Dragons for Tolkien and Lewis.” Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and the Genres of Myth and Fantasy Stu, vol. 11, no. 1 [39], 1984, pp. 53-58.

—. Tolkien as a Child of the Green Fairy Book.” Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature, vol. 26, no. 1-2 [99-100], 2007, pp. 127-135.

—. “Watchful Dragons and Sinewy Gnomes: C. S. Lewis’s Use of Modern Fairy Tales.” Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature, vol. 30, no. 3-4 [117-118], 2012, pp. 117-126.

Burne, Glenn S. “Andrew Lang’s The Blue Fairy Book: Changing The Course Of History.” Touchstones: Reflections on the Best in Children’s Literature: Fairy Tales, Fables, Myths, Legends, and Poetry. 140-150. West Lafayette: Children’s Lit. Assn., 1987.

Calkins, Roger W. “Andrew Lang (31 March 1844 – 20 July 1912).” Modern British Essayists, First Series. 204-213. Detroit, MI: Gale, 1990.

Chance, Jane. “Tolkien’s Hybrid Mythology: The Hobbit as Old Norse ‘Fairy-Story’.” The Hobbit and Tolkien’s Mythology: Essays on Revisions and Influences, Bradford Lee (ed. and introd.) Eden, McFarland, 2014, pp. 78-96.

Cohen, Morton N. “Rudyard Kipling to Andrew Lang: An Unpublished Letter in Verse.” Dalhousie Review, vol. 45, 1965, pp. 361-364.

Comanzo, Christian. “Mythe Solaire, Héros Solaire.” Cahiers Victoriens Et Edouardiens: Revue Du Centre D’Etudes Et De Recherches Victoriennes Et Edouardiennes De L’Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier, vol. 23, Apr. 1986, pp. 35-46.

Coustillas, Pierre. “On the Outskirts of Gissing’s World: Some Comments on a Volume of Andrew Lang‘s Correspondence.” The Gissing Newsletter, vol. 26, no. 1, Jan. 1990, pp. 30-34.

—, and Colin Partridge, editors. Gissing: The Critical Heritage,  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972, p. 183. [Lang’s review of Gissing’s New Grub Street in The Author.]

Cox, Don Richard. Charles Dickens’s The Mystery of Edwin Drood: An Annotated Bibliography. Ams Studies in the Nineteenth Century, 1998. [Out of print: See WorldCat.]

Crawford, Robert. “Pater’s Renaissance, Andrew Lang, and Anthropological Romanticism.” ELH 53.4 (Winter 1986): 849–79. JSTOR. 18 Jun. 2012.

Day, Andrea. “‘Almost wholly the work of Mrs. Lang’: Nora Lang, Literary Labour, and the Fairy Books.” Women’s Writing 26:4 (2017): 400-420. Taylor and Francis Online. DOI: 10.1080/09699082.2017.1371938.

Davidson, Ellis. “Folklore and Myth.” Anthropology, Folklore, and Myth, Robert A. (ed. and introd.) Segal, Garland, 1996, pp. 95-109. Theories of Myth from Ancient Israel and Greece to Freud, Jung, Campbell and Levi-Strauss: 2.

Demoor, Marysa. “Andrew Lang: Crusader On Behalf Of Romance.” Studia Germanica Gandensia 20.(1979): 87-104. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

—. “Andrew Lang Versus W. D. Howells: A Late-Victorian Literary Duel.” Journal Of American Studies 21.3 (1987): 416-422.

—. “Andrew Lang’s Causeries, 1874-1912.” Victorian Periodicals Review 21.1 (1988): 15-22.

—. “Andrew Lang’s Letters to Edmund Gosse: The Record of a Fruitful Collaboration as Poets, Critics, and Biographers.” The Review of English Studies, New Series 38, No. 152 (Nov. 1987), 492–509.

—. “Andrew Lang’s Letters To H. Rider Haggard: The Record Of A Harmonious Relationship.” Etudes Anglaises: Grande-Bretagne, Etats-Unis 40.3 (1987): 313-322. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

—. “Brieven Van Andrew Lang (1844-1912) Aan Dode en Levende Auteurs.” Literatuur in Brieven, Paul (ed.) Pelckmans, Vlaamse Vereniging voor Algemene en Vergelijkende Literatuurwetenschap, 1994, pp. 73-86. ALW-Cahiers (ALW-C): 14.

—. “The Trumpets Sound: Enter Andrew Lang, Victorian Critic, in Armour.” Elizabethan and Modern Studies, J. P. Vander (ed.) Motten, Seminarie voor Eng. & Amer. Lit., Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 1985, pp. 97-107.

Demoor, Marysa, and Pierr Coustillas. “Andrew Lang on Gissing: A Late Victorian Point of View.” The Gissing Newsletter 2 Apr. 1984: 23-28.

Donaldson, William. “Andrew Lang: A World We Have Lost.” Studies in Scottish Literature 43.1 (2017): 155–65.

Dorson, Richard M. “Andrew Lang’s Folklore Interests As Revealed In ‘At The Sign Of The Ship’.” Western Folklore 11 (1952): 1-19. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

—. The British Folklorists: A History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1968.

—. “The Eclipse of Solar Mythology.” Anthropology, Folklore, and Myth, Robert A. (ed. and introd.) Segal, Garland, 1996, pp. 111-134. Theories of Myth from Ancient Israel and Greece to Freud, Jung, Campbell and Levi-Strauss: 2.

Duff-Cooper, Andrew. “Andrew Lang: Aspects of His Work in Relation to Current Social Anthropology.” Folklore 97.2 (1986): 186–205. JSTOR. Web. 18 Jun. 2006.

—. “A Note on ‘Andrew Lang‘s Training in Folklore’.” Folklore, vol. 99, no. 2, 1988, pp. 248-249.

Fielding, Penny. “Reading Rooms: M. R. James and the Library of Modernity.” MFS: Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 46, no. 3, 2000, pp. 749-771.

Flieger, Verlyn, and Douglas A. Anderson, eds. Tolkien On Fairy-stories. London: HarperCollins, 2008. (Tolkien’s “On Fairy-stories” was originally given as the 1939 Andrew Lang lecture at St Andrews; the essay was revised heavily for publication. Flieger and Anderson have included Tolkien’s earlier drafts in their edition, including a number of additional paragraphs discussing Lang and Scotland.)

Gad, Irene. “Beauty and the Beast and the Wonderful Sheep-The Couple in Fairy Tales: When Father’s Daughter Meets Mother’s Son.” Psyche’s Stories: Modern Jungian Interpretations of Fairy Tales, I, Murray (ed.) Stein and Lionel (ed.) Corbett, Chiron, 1991, pp. 27-48.

Gessert, Genevieve S. “The Mirror Crack’d: Fractured Classicisms in the Pre-Raphaelites and Victorian Illustration.” Classical Traditions in Modern Fantasy, edited by Brett M. Rogers and Benjamin Eldon, Oxford UP, 2017.

Green, Roger Lancelyn. “Andrew Lang and the Fairy Tale.” The Review of English Studies 20.79 (Jul. 1944): 227–31. JSTOR. Web. 18 Jun. 2012. (Roger Lancelyn Green’s 1944 B.Litt thesis on Andrew Lang (revised extensively into the 1946 biography above) was written under D. Nicoll Smith and J.R.R. Tolkien’s supervision. Tolkien did not pass the thesis initially in 1943 but sent it back to Green for revisions because he ‘wanted to know more about the Fairies!’ [Scull & Hammond II.352])

—. Andrew Lang: Poet and Romantic: 1844-1912.” English: The Journal of the English Association, vol. 5, no. 26, 1944, pp. 37-44.

—. “Andrew Lang, ‘The Greatest Bookman of His Age’.” Indiana University Bookman, vol. 7, 1965, pp. 10-72.

—. “Andrew Lang: Real Reader of Dickens.” Dickensian, vol. 58, 1961, pp. 124-127.

—. “C.S. Lewis and Andrew Lang.” Notes and Queries, vol. 22, 1975, pp. 208-209.

—. “Descriptions from the Darlington Collection of Andrew Lang.” Indiana University Bookman, vol. 7, 1965, pp. 73-101.

Hart, Rachel. “Tolkien, St. Andrews, and Dragons.” Tree of Tales: Tolkien, Literature, and Theology, edited by Trevor Hart and Ivan Khovacs, Baylor University Press, 2007, pp. 1–11.

Hensley, Nathan K. “Network: Andrew Lang And The Distributed Agencies Of Literary Production.” Victorian Periodicals Review 48.3 (2015): 359-382.

—. “Network, History, Method: Andrew Lang in and after the 1880s.” Nineteenth-Century Literature in Transition: The 1880s, edited by Penny Fielding and Andrew Taylor,  Cambridge UP, 2019, pp. 117–38. [Hensley writes in a footnote that in this essay he “acknowledges his collaborators, Molly Clark Hillard, Kathy Psomiades, Letitia Henville, Supritha Rajan and Jonah Siegel, for their co-creation of these ideas. In keeping with its own theses, this essay is from pieces published in RaVoN: Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net and Victorian Periodicals Review” (117).

—. “What is a Network? (And Who is Andrew Lang?)” Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net 64 (Oct. 2013): n. pag. Érudit. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Henville, Letitia. “Andrew Lang’s ‘Literary Plagiarism’: Reading Material And The Material Of Literature.” Romanticism And Victorianism On The Net 64.(2013): MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

Hillard, Molly Clark. Spellbound: The Fairy Tale and the Victorians. Ohio State UP, 2014.

—. “Trysting Genres: Andrew Lang’s Fairy Tale Methodologies.” Romanticism And Victorianism On The Net 64.(2013): MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

Hilton, J. L. Andrew Lang, Comparative Anthropology and the Classics in the African Romances of Rider Haggard.” Akroterion: Journal for the Classics in South Africa 56 (2011): 107–128.

Hines, Sara M.”Collecting the Empire: Andrew Lang’s Fairy Books, 1889–1910.” Marvels and Tales 24.1 (2010): 39–56. Project Muse. Web. 18 June 2012.

—. “Narrating Scotland: Andrew Lang’s Coloured Fairy Book Collection, The Gold Of Fairnilee , And ‘A Creelfull Of Celtic Stories’.” Folklore and Nationalism in Europe during the Long Nineteenth Century. 207-226. Boston, MA: Leiden UP, 2012.

—. “‘To Children and Others’: Audience, Advertising, and the Reception of Andrew Lang’s Fairy Books (1889–1910).” The Land of Story-Books: Scottish Children’s Literature in the Long Nineteenth Century. Association for Scottish Literary Studies, pp. 378–401. Project MUSE,

Hughes, Linda K. “Andrew Lang’s Discursive Cosmopolitanism in Longman’s Magazine.” Scottish Cosmopolitanism at the Fin de Siècle, special issue of Studies in Scottish Literature, vol. 48, no. 1, 8 May 2022, pp. 16–24. DOI: 10.51221/sc.ssl.2022.48.1.3

—. “A Woman Poet Angling For Notice: Rosamund Marriot Watson.” Marketing the Author: Authorial Personae, Narrative Selves and Self-Fashioning, 1880–1930. Ed. Marysa Demoor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 134–55.

Ireland, G.W. “National Literature and Minority Culture: The Scottish Experience.” Queen’s Quarterly, vol. 80, 1973, pp. 180-193.

Jakobsson, Ármann. “The Fearless Vampire Killers: A Note about the Icelandic Draugr and Demonic Contamination in Grettis Saga.” Folklore, vol. 120, no. 3, Dec. 2009, pp. 307-316.

Kenner, Hugh. “Homer’s Sticks and Stones.” James Joyce Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 1-2, 2012, pp. 51-62.

Kirch, Max S. “Note on the History of Jack the Giant Killer.” Modern Language Notes, vol. 69, no. 1, Jan. 1954, p. 44.

Lang, Andrew. “Three Reviews (1886-1889).” Kipling Journal, vol. 32, no. 156, 1965, pp. 20-24.

Lecourt, Sebastian. Cultivating Belief: Victorian Anthropology, Liberal Aesthetics, and the Secular Imagination. Oxford UP, 2018.

Leighton, Mary Elizabeth. Andrew Lang and the 1885 Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature at Oxford.” Notes and Queries (Sep. 2006): 336–38.

Lewis, Alex. “The Ogre in the Dungeon.” Mallorn: The Journal of the Tolkien Society, vol. 47, 2009, pp. 15-18.

Lodge, Sara. He and She, the 1880s, Camp Aesthetics, and the Literary Magazine.” Nineteenth-Century Literature in Transition: The 1880s, edited by Penny Fielding and Andrew Taylor,  Cambridge UP, 2019, pp. 178–99.

Lojo-Rodriguez, Laura. “‘The Saving Power of Hallucination’: Elizabeth Bowen’s ‘Mysterious Kôr’ and Female Romance.” Zeitschrift Für Anglistik Und Amerikanistik: A Quarterly of Language, Literature and Culture, vol. 62, no. 4, Oct. 2014, pp. 273-289.

Luckhurst, Roger. “Knowledge, Belief and the Supernatural at the Imperial Margin.” The Victorian Supernatural, Nicola Bown (ed. and introd.), et al., Cambridge UP, 2004, pp. 197-216.

MacDonald, Catriona M. M. “Andrew Lang and Scottish Historiography: Taking on Tradition.” Scottish Historical Review 94, no. 239 (2015): 207–36.

Matz, Aaron. “George Gissing’s Ambivalent Realism.” Nineteenth-Century Literature, vol. 59, no. 2, Sep. 2004, pp. 212-48. JSTOR, (Brief mention of Lang’s review of New Grub Street on pp. 218 and 225.)

Maurer, Oscar. “Andrew Lang And Longman’s Magazine, 1882-1905.” University Of Texas Studies In English 34.(1955): 152-178.

McFarland, Ronald E. “Victorian Villanelle.” Victorian Poetry, vol. 20, no. 2, 1982, pp. 125-138.

Michalski, Robert. “Towards a popular culture: Andrew Lang’s anthropological and literary criticism.” Journal of American Culture 18.3 (Fall 1995). Literature Online. Web. 18 Jun. 2012.

Montenyohl, Eric L. “Andrew Lang‘s Contributions to English Folk Narrative Scholarship: A Reevaluation.” Western Folklore, vol. 47, no. 4, Oct. 1988, pp. 269-284.

—. “Andrew Lang’s Training in Folklore.” Folklore 98.2 (1987): 180–82. JSTOR. Web. 18 Jun. 2012.

Moss, Anita. “Crime and Punishment-Or Development-In Fairy Tales and Fantasy.” Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and the Genres of Myth and Fantasy Studies, vol. 8, no. 1 [27], 1981, pp. 26-28.

Orel, Harold. Victorian Literary Critics: George Henry Lewes, Walter Bagehot, Richard Holt Hutton, Leslie Stephen, Andrew Lang, George Saintsbury and Edmund Gosse. London: Macmillan, 1984.

Østermark-Johansen, Lene. “Apollo in the North: Transmutations of the Sun God in Walter Pater’s Imaginary Portraits.” Cahiers victoriens et édouardiens [Online], 80 (Autumn 2014), Online since 15 January 2015. DOI: 10.4000/cve.1520.

Lang’s anthropological positions on Apollo are discussed in the above, but the detail of greatest interest may be Østermark-Johansen’s endnote 12: “Very little is known of the friendship between Andrew Lang and Pater. All letters in Lang’s possession were destroyed after his death by his wife at his request, and there is only one direct reference to [Lang] in the published letters of Pater: on 27 November 1872 Pater forwarded an essay ‘by my friend Andrew Lang’, on the Chanson de Roland to John Chapman, editor of the Westminster Review. As Oxford men, with much the same interests, and moving in the same circles, they most likely knew each other well (Pater 1970, 11). In her letters of July 1886 Vernon Lee noted that she had been at a tea-party with Lang and Pater at Mary Robinson’s house in London (Lee 223).”

Pazdziora, John Patrick. “How the Fairies were not Invited to Court. Rethinking George MacDonald: Contexts and Contemporaries. Ed. Christopher MacLachlan, John Patrick Pazdziora and Ginger Stelle. Glasgow: Scottish Literature International, 2013. 254-72.

Pennington, John. “Solar Mythology in George Macdonald’s ‘Little Daylight’ and ‘The Day Boy and the Night Girl’.” Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts, vol. 10, no. 3 [39], 1999, pp. 308-320.

Pinch, Adela. “Rhyme’s End.” Victorian Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Social, Political, and Cultural Studies, vol. 53, no. 3, 2011, pp. 485-494.

Psomiades, Kathy. “Hidden Meaning: Andrew Lang, H. Rider Haggard, Sigmund Freud, and Interpretation.”Romanticism And Victorianism On The Net 64.(2013): MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

Rajan, Supritha. “Networking Magic: Andrew Lang And The Science Of Self-Interest.” Romanticism And Victorianism On The Net 64.(2013): MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

Reid, Forrest. Andrew Lang and “Longman’s.” The London Mercury and Bookman 37, no. 221 (Mar. 1938): 502–08.

Reid, Julia. “‘King Romance’ in Longman’s Magazine: Andrew Lang and Literary Populism.” Victorian Periodicals Review 44.4 (Winter 2011): 354–76. Project Muse. 

Ruiz, Herrero, Javier. “At the Crossroads between Literature, Culture, Linguistics, and Cognition: Local Character-Based Metaphors in Fairy Tales.” Journal of English Studies 13 (2015): 47–70. DOI: 10.18172/jes.3060.

Ryan, J. S. “Tolkien’s Concept of Philology as Mythology.” Seven: An Anglo-American Literary Review, vol. 7, 1986, pp. 91-106.

Sands-O’Connor, Karen. “Primitive Minds: Anthropology, Children, And Savages In Andrew Lang And Rudyard Kipling.” Childhood in Edwardian Fiction: Worlds Enough and Time. 177-190. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Scott, Mark. “Andrew Lang‘s ‘Scythe Song’ Becomes Robert Frost’s ‘Mowing’: Frost’s Practice of Poetry.” Robert Frost Review, 1991, pp. 30-38.

Schroeder, Horst. “An Echo of Andrew Lang in ‘The Decay of Lying’.” Notes and Queries, vol. 38 (236), no. 3, Sept. 1991, p. 326.

Schroeder, Sharin. “Genre Problems: Andrew Lang and J.R.R. Tolkien on (Fairy) Stories and (Literary) Belief.” Informing the Inklings: George MacDonald and the Victorian Roots of Modern Fantasy. Ed. Michael Partridge and Kirstin Jeffrey Johnson. Hampden, CT: Winged Lion Press, 2018. 149–79.

—. “Lasting Ephemera: Margaret Oliphant and Andrew Lang on Lives and Letters.” Victorian Periodicals Review 50.2 (Summer 2017): 336–65. DOI:

—. “She-who-must-not-be-ignored: Gender and Genre in The Lord of the Rings and the Victorian Boys’ Book.” Perilous and Fair: Women in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Work and Life. Ed. Janet Brennan Croft and Leslie Donovan. Altadena, CA: Mythopoeic Press, 2015. 70–96. Reprinted in J.R.R. Tolkien. Ed. Stuart Lee. Routledge, 2017. 4 vols.

Shallcross, Michael. “G. K. Chesterton’s Assimilation of Fin-De-Siècle Voices in the Man Who Was Thursday: The Dialogic Sensibility.” English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, vol. 59, no. 3, 2016, pp. 320-343.

Sharpe, Eric J. “Andrew Lang And The Making Of Myth.” Ethnography Is a Heavy Rite: Studies of Comparative Religion in Honor of Juha Pentikäinen. Turku, Finland: Åbo Akademi UP, 2000. 52-63.

Sherbo, Arthur. “On the Ethics of Reprinting: Thomas Mosher vs. Andrew Lang. The New England Quarterly 64.1 (Mar. 1991): 100–12. JSTOR.

Siegel, Jonah. “Lang’s Survivals.” Romanticism And Victorianism On The Net 64 (2013):

Smol, Anna. “The ‘Savage’ and the ‘Civilized’: Andrew Lang’s Representation of the Child and the Translation of Folklore.”Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 121.4 (Winter 1996): 177–83. Project Muse. 3 July 2012.

Sparks, Julie. “At The Intersection Of Victorian Science And Fiction: Andrew Lang’s ‘Romance Of The First Radical’.” English Literature In Transition 1880-1920 42.2 (1999): 125–142. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 28 Dec. 2016.

Sherbo, Arthur. “On The Ethics Of Reprinting: Thomas Mosher Vs. Andrew Lang.” New England Quarterly: A Historical Review Of New England Life And Letters 64.1 (1991): 100–112.

Sumpter, Caroline. “Devulgarizing Dickens: Andrew Lang, Homer and the Rise of Psycho-Folklore.” ELH, vol. 87, no. 3, fall 2020, pp. 733–59. Project MUSE, DOI:

Susina, Jan. “Andrew Lang.” British Children’s Writers, 1880-1914. 173–85. Detroit, MI: Gale, 1994.

—. “Like the fragments of coloured glass in a kaleidoscope”: Andrew Lang Mixes Up Richard Doyle’s In Fairyland.” Marvels & Tales 17.1 (2003): 100–19. Project Muse. Web. 3 Jul. 2012.

Tait, Margaret. “Peveril of the Peak.” Scott Newsletter, vol. 27, 1995, pp. 13-14.

Taplin, Gardner B. “Andrew Lang as a Student of the Traditional Narrative Ballad.” TSE: Tulane Studies in English, vol. 14, 1965, pp. 57-73.

Teverson, Andrew. The Fairy-tale Collections of Andrew Lang and Joseph Jacobs: Identity, Nation, Empire.” Gramarye, vol. 9, pp. 7–17.

—. “‘A Shy and Fugitive People’: Andrew Lang and the Fairies.” Special Issue of The Bottle Imp [A Publication of the Association for Scottish Literary Studies], Not of the Race of Adam: Scottish Fairies Beasts and Elves. (November 2016): n. pag.

Weintraub, Joseph. “Andrew Lang: Critic Of Romance.” English Literature In Transition (1880-1920) 18 (1975): 5-15.

Wheeler-Barclay, Marjorie. The Science of Religion in Britain, 1860–1915. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2010.

Wilson, Leigh. “‘There the Facts Are’: Andrew Lang, Facts and Fantasy.” Journal of Literature and Science, vol. 6, no. 2, 2013, pp. 29–43. DOI:10.12929/jls.06.2.03.

Wood, Lucy. “‘Poetry that does not die’: Andrew Lang and Walter Scott’s ‘Immortal’ Antiquarianism,” Studies in Scottish Literature 44.2 (2019): 53–62.

Yoshino, Yuki. “Writing the Borders: Fairies and Ambivalent National Identity in Andrew Lang‘s the Gold of Fairnilee.” The Enclave of My Nation: Cross-Currents in Irish and Scottish Studies, Shane (ed.) Alcobia-Murphy and Margaret (ed. and introd.) Maxwell, AHRC Centre for Irish and Scottish Studies and Contributions, 2008, pp. 227-241.

Dissertations/PhD Theses:

Bayliss, Philippa J. “Andrew Lang and the Study of Religion in the Victorian Era With Special Reference to His High God Theory.” [Scotland, African Religions, Native-American Religions]. Diss. University of Aberdeen, 1987.

Burns, Marjorie. “Victorian Fantasists from Ruskin to Lang: A Study in Ambivalence.” Diss. University of California, Berkeley, 1978.

Demoor, Marysa. “Andrew Lang (1844–1912): Late Victorian Humanist and Journalistic Critic with a Descriptive Checklist of the Lang Letters.” Diss. Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 1982–83. (I have listed Marysa Demoor’s dissertation in bold due to its importance: the dissertation includes a descriptive checklist of over 4,000 Lang letters that are scattered among numerous archives. The link to Demoor’s dissertation is from Ghent University library and is posted with her permission; unlike the Andrew Lang writings posted on this site, which are in the public domain, this dissertation is under copyright and should be treated accordingly.)

Lecourt, Sebastian. “Cultivating Belief: Victorian Anthropology and the Secular Imagination.” Diss. Yale University, 2011. [Edited into a 2018 Oxford UP book.]

Montenyohl, Eric Lawrence. “Andrew Lang And The Fairy Tale.” Dissertation Abstracts International 47.12 (1987): 4479A.

Yoshino, Yuki. “Desire for perpetuation: fairy writing and re-creation of national identity in the narratives of Walter Scott, John Black, James Hogg and Andrew Lang.” PhD Thesis. University of Edinburgh, 2014.

MA Theses:

Aron, Melanie Sylvia. “Hero in drag: Victorian gender-identity and the fairy tales of Andrew Lang.” MA Thesis California State University, Fresno. 2008.

McKinnell, Ann Louise. “Andrew Lang: Anthropologist, Classicist, Folklorist and Victorian Critic.” MA Thesis University of Toronto. 1992.

Past Conferences on Lang’s Work

Andrew Lang (1844–1912): A Centenary Celebration1 Nov. 2012. University of St Andrews.

Non-contemporary Newspaper Accounts/Popular Sources on Andrew Lang

“Andrew Lang.” Undiscovered Scotland. Copyright 2000–2020.

Kelly, Stuart. “Andrew Lang: The Life and Times of a Prolific Talent.” The Scotsman. 30 Jan. 2012.

“Selkirk fairytale festival gets under way.” BBC News. 21 July 2016.

Other Lang Projects

Online Bilingual English/Italian version of the Twelve Color Fairy Books translated by Annarita Verzola

Related Resources on Nineteenth-Century Journalism

Brake, Laurel and Marysa Demoor. Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism in Great Britain and Ireland. Gent: Academia Press, 2009.

Briggs, Asa. A History of Longmans and their Books 1724–1990: Longevity in Publishing. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2008.

Demoor, Marysa, ed. Marketing the Author: Authorial Personae, Narrative Selves and Self-Fashioning, 1880-1930. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Easley, Alexis. Literary Celebrity, Gender, and Victorian Authorship, 1850-1914. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 2011.

Liddle, Dallas. The Dynamics of Genre: Journalism and the Practice of Literature in Mid-Victorian Britain. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

Mussell, James. The Nineteenth-Century Press in the Digital Age. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

—. Science, Time and Space in the Late Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press: Movable Types. London: Routledge, 2007.

See also Rosemary VanArsdel’s Bibliography: Victorian Periodicals, Aids to Research: A Selected Bibliography at the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals site.

U Penn’s Online Books Page, while not all-inclusive, is helpful to researchers looking for scans of books and periodical writings by Lang and other Victorians.

If you have other suggestions for inclusion in this bibliography, please send them to me using the contact form. Thank you.

This page was last updated on 23 Dec. 2022.